Today’s grammar material is dedicated to the Akkusativ case. What is it?
There are sentences in which there is a subject — the one who performs the action and the object — the one on whom the action is performed. Example: “I (the subject who does the action) buy (the action) the hat (the object on which the action is performed)”. This object answers the question “who? What?” (wen? was?), therefore, the Akkusativ case corresponds to the accusative case in Russian.
What is the case of Akkusativ
It shows the article. Returning to buying a hat: “Ein Hut kostet 4 Euro” – a hat costs 4 euros (the hat is in the nominative case: it stands, that is, it performs the action). “Ich kaufe einen Hut” – I buy a hat (the action is done on the object-hat). We see that the indefinite article of the masculine “ein” changes to the indefinite article “einen” in the Akkusativ case.
In the accusative case, only the masculine articles change, while the rest remain as in the Nominativ (nominative) case:
der (ein) – den (einen) – masculine;
Ich sehe den Mann – I see a man (whom?);
die (eine) – die (eine) – feminine;
Ich frage die Frau – I ask a woman (whom?);
das (ein) – das (ein) – neuter;
Ich repariere das Auto – I’m fixing a car (what?);
die (-) – die (-) is a plural number;
Ich kaufe die Schuhe (plural) – I buy shoes (what?).
Case Akkusativ also answers the question “where?” (wohin?): “Ich gehe auf einen Platz” – I go to the square. “Ich gehe in die Schule” – I go to school.
You do not need to ask test questions every time. It is easy to understand that an action is performed not by someone or something, but on someone or something. That’s when Akkusativ time comes.
The noun can be replaced by the pronoun:
ich – mich (I – me);
Sie begrüßen mich – they greet me;
du – dich (you – you);
Ich liebe dich – I love you;
er – ihn (he is his);
Ich kenne ihn – I know him;
sie – sie (she is hers);
es – es (it is his);
wir – uns (we – us);
Er hört uns – he listens to us;
ihr – euch (you are you);
Wir sehen euch – We see you;
sie – sie (they are theirs);
Sie – Sie (you – you) – a polite form of treatment.
As you can see, not all pronouns change, but only some.
The Akkusativ case is used with a number of prepositions, and some prepositions in German do not coincide with Russian in the cases that need to be used with them. Later we will talk with you about prepositions in German and which ones require Akkusativ after themselves.