German learns.” Naturally, he does not do this himself, it is necessary to make certain efforts, but still today we are dismantling the passive / passive voice – Passiv in German (when “something is being done”).
Passiv shows that a particular object is passive and the action is performed not by it, but above it. For example, “houses are built,” “a book is being written,” etc. Passive voice is used when you need to focus on the action itself, or when we do not know exactly who performs it. In German, it is used much more often.
Interesting to know!
We have repeatedly discussed with you Dativ and Akkusativ, and next to them we often mentioned Genetiv (genitive), but we never spoke about it separately. The fact is that this case occurs much less frequently than the others, and recently it is dying out altogether.
To form Passiv, we use the verb “werden” + verb in the third form (Partizip II):
Die Häuser werden gebaut – houses are being built;
Das Buch wird schnell geschrieben – the book is quickly written.
The verb “werden” leans as follows:
Ich – werde;
Du – wirst;
Er, sie, es – wird;
Wir – werden;
Ihr – werdet;
Sie, Sie – werden;
In the passive can not be used:
words of motion (“gehen” – “go”, “laufen” – “run”);
state change words (“auf | wachen” – wake up);
reverse verbs (verbs with “sich”);
impersonal verbs that are formed with “es” (“es gibt” – “available”);
verbs meaning knowledge (“wissen” – “to know”, “kennen” – “to be familiar”, “erfahren” – “to learn”);
modal verbs (“können” – “to be able”);
verbs that require an obligatory subject in Akkusativ (“kosten” – “cost”, “wiegen” – “weigh”);
words from a group of verbs with the meaning “receive” (“haben” – “have”, “kriegen” – “receive”).
There is a certain logic here. You would not speak in Russian “can read”, “go to school”, etc.
Liabilities also exist at different times:
Präteritum (wurden + Partizip II) – Perfekt (sein + Partizip II + worden)
Ich wurde gefragt – ich bin gefragt worden – I was asked (I was asked);
Das buch wurde geschrieben – das buch ist geschrieben worden – the book was written;
Die Häuser werden gebaut – die Häuser sind gebaut worden – houses were built.
Futur I (werden + Partizip II + werden)
Das Buch wird geschrieben werden – the book will be written.
In essence, passive behavior in past and future times behaves like a normal sentence. But the verb “werden” in the perfect is used without the “ge-” and with the auxiliary verb “sein”. In the future, “werden” is used twice, because it is necessary for the formation of both a passive voice and the future tense.
For today everything, but further we will tell some more tricks of Passiv `and.